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Craig Harms, DVM, PhD

Craig Harms

Diplomate, ACZM
Associate Professor, Aquatic, Wildlife, and Zoologic Medicine

NCSU Center for Marine Sciences and Technology
303 College Circle
Morehead City, NC 28557

Phone: 252.222.6339
Fax: 252.222.6311


DVM Iowa State University 1989
PhD in Immunology, North Carolina State University 1999


Zoological medicine, aquatics emphasis.

Professional Experience & Qualifications

Private small animal practice in Alaska
Internship in Zoo, Exotic and Wildlife Medicine, Kansas State University
Residency in Zoological Medicine, North Carolina State University

Research Area

Clinical investigations of aquatic and nondomestic animal health.

Selected Publications

Minter LJ, Harms CA, Archibald KE, Broadhurst H, Bailey KM, Christiansen EF, Lewbart GA, Posner LP. 2013. The efficacy of alfaxalone for the intravascular anesthesia and euthanasia in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). J Zoo Wildl Med 44: 694-699.

Choi K, Cope WG, Harms CA, Law JM. 2013. Rapid decreases in salinity, but not increases, lead to immune dysregulation in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus). J Fish Dis 36: 389-399. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2761.2012.01417.x

Clarke EO III, Dorn B, Boone A, Risatti G, Gilbert-Marcheterre K, Harms CA. 2013. Mycobacteriosis, Mycobacterium chelonae, in a captive yellow stingray (Urobatis jamaicensis). J Zoo Wildl Med 44: 470-474.

Erlacher-Reid CD, Norton TM, Harms CA, Thompson R, Walsh MT, Stamper MA 2013. Intestinal and cloacal strictures in free-ranging and aquarium-maintained green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). J Zoo Wildl Med 44: 408-429.

Clarke EO III, Harms CA, Law JM, Flowers JR, Williams VN, Ring BD, McGinty AS, Hopper M, Sullivan CV. 2012. Clinical and pathological effects of the polyopisthocotylean monogenean, Gamacallum macroura (MacCallum and MacCallum 1913) Unnithan 1971, in white bass (Morone chrysops). J Aquat Anim Health 24: 251-257.

Avens L, Goshe LR, Harms CA, Anderson ET, Hall AG, Cluse WM, Godfrey MH, Braun-McNeill J, Stacy B, Bailey R, Lamont MM. 2012. Population characteristics, age structure, and growth dynamics of neritic juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 458: 213-229, doi: 10.3354/meps09720.

Harms CA, Harms RV. 2012. Venous blood gas and lactate values of mourning doves (Zenaida macroura), boat-tailed grackles (Quiscalus major) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) following capture by mist net, banding, and venipuncture. J Zoo Wildl Med 43: 77-84.

Clode AB, Harms CA, Fatzinger MH, Young F, Colitz CH, Wert D. 2012. Identification and management of ocular lipid deposition in association with hyperlipidemia in captive moray eels Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani, Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier), and Muraena retifera Goode & Bean. J Fish Dis 35: 683-693.

Anderson ET, Frasca S, Asakawa M, Fatzinger MH, Johnson J, Marchettere K, Goodale L, Risatti GR, Harms CA. 2012. Splenic mycobacteriosis in an Atlantic guitarfish, Rhinobatos lentiginosus (Garman). J Fish Dis 35: 541-544, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2761.2012.01367.x.

Harms CA, Cranston EA, Papich MB, Rodriguez MX, Higgins MB, Flanagan JP. 2011. Pharmacokinetics of clindamycin in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) after a single intravenous, intramuscular or oral dose. J Herp Med Surg 21: 113-119.

Anderson ET, Harms CA, Stringer EM, Cluse WM. 2011. Evaluation of hematology and serum biochemistry of cold-stunned green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) in North Carolina. J Zoo Wildl Med 42: 247-255, DOI: 10.1638/2010-0217.1.

Anderson ET, Minter LJ, Clarke EO, Mroch RM, Beasley JF, Harms CA. 2011. The effects of feeding on hematological and plasma biochemical profiles in green (Chelonia mydas) and Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) sea turtles. Vet Med Int. 2011, DOI:10.4061/2011/890829, 7 pp.,

Boylan SM, Harms CA, Waltzek T, Law JM, Garner M, Cassell J, Fatzinger MH, Govett P. 2011. Hyperplastic adipose lids in mackerel scad (Decapterus macarellus). J Fish Dis 34: 921-925.

Stringer EM, Harms CA, Beasley JF, Anderson ET. 2010. Comparison of ionized calcium, parathyroid hormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in rehabilitating and healthy wild green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). J Herp Med Surg 20: 122-127, DOI: 10.5818/1529-9651-20.4.122.

Anderson ET, Stoskopf MK, Morris JA, Clarke EO, Harms CA. 2010. Hematology, plasma biochemistry, and tissue enzyme activities of invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans) off North Carolina, USA. J Aquat Anim Health 22: 266-273.

Anderson ET, Davis AS, Law JM, Lewbart GA, Christian LS, Harms CA. 2010. Gross and histological evaluation of five suture materials in the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the California sea hare (Aplysia callifornica). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 49: 64-68.

Church ML, Grafinger MS, Harms CA, Lewbart GA, Christian LS, Beasley JF. 2009. Surgical repair of severe flipper lacerations in a loggerhead, Caretta caretta, and a Kemp’s ridley, Lepidochelys kempii, sea turtle. J Zoo Wildl. Med 40: 744-751.

Harms CA, Eckert SA, Jones TT, Dow Piniak WE, Mann DA. 2009. A technique for underwater anesthesia compared with manual restraint of sea turtles undergoing auditory evoked potential measurements. J Herp Med Surg 19: 8-12.

Freeman KS, Lewbart GA, Robarge WP, Harms CA, Law M, Stoskopf MK. 2009. Characterizing eversion syndrome in captive scyphomedusa jellyfish. Am J Vet Res 70: 1087-1093.

Wolf KN, Harms CA, Beasley J. 2008. Evaluation of multiple clinical chemistry analyzers for sea turtle health assessment. J Am Vet Med Assoc 233: 470-475.

Chinnadurai SK, Brown DL, Van Wettere A, Tuttle AD, Fatzinger MH, Linder KE, Harms CA. 2008. Mortalities associated with sepsis, parasitism and disseminated round cell neoplasia in yellow-lipped kraits (Laticauda colubrina). J Zoo Wildl Med 39: 626-630.

Harms CA, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB, Clemons-Chevis CL, Solangi M, Rotstein DS, Fair PA, Hansen LJ, Hohn AA, Lovewell GN, McLellan WA, Pabst DA, Rowles TK, Schwacke LH, Townsend FI, Wells RS. 2008. Bartonella species detection in captive, stranded and free-ranging cetaceans. Vet Res 39: 59.

Maclean RA, Harms CA, Braun-McNeill J. 2008. Propofol anesthesia in loggerhead (Caretta caretta) sea turtles. J Wildl Dis 44: 143-150. ACZM Manuscript Award winner.

Harms CA, Lovewell GN, Rotstein DS. 2008. Presumed hyperglycemic cataracts in a live-stranded minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) calf. Mar Mam Sci 24: 388-397.

Tuttle AD, Burrus O, Burkart MA, Scott PW, Stoskopf MK, Harms CA. 2008. Three cases of gastric prolapse through the gill slit in sand tiger sharks, Carcharhinus taurus (Rafinesque). J Fish Dis 31: 311-315.

Johnson AK, Law JM, Harms CA, Levine JF. 2007. Multi-tiered health assessment of Atlantic menhaden in the Pamlico River, North Carolina. J Aquat Anim Health 19: 205-214.

Choi K, Law JM, Harms CA, Lehman W. 2007. Hypoxia-reperfusion triggers immunocompromise in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). J Aquat Anim Health 19: 128-140. Selected Best Paper for JAAH for 2007.

Harms CA, Stoskopf MK. 2007. Outcomes for adult laboratory ferret adoptions following gonadectomy in a veterinary student teaching exercise. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 46(4): 50-54.

Harms CA, Eckert SA, Kubis SA, Campbell M, Levenson DH, Crognale MA. 2007. Field anaesthesia of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). Vet Rec 161: 15-21.

Kelly TK, Harms CA, Lemons C, McClellan C, Hohn AA. 2006. Influence of preoperative oxytetracycline administration on community composition and antimicrobial susceptibility of cloacal bacterial flora of loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, post-hatchlings. J Herp Med Surg 16(1): 9-14.

Harms CA. 2006. Echinoderms. In: Lewbart GA (ed). Invertebrate Medicine. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell, pp. 245 – 256.

Stamper MA, Harms CA, Epperly SP, Braun-McNeill J, Avens L, Stoskopf MK. 2006. Relationship between barnacle epibiotic load and hematologic parameters in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), a comparison between migratory and residential animals in Pamlico Sound, North Carolina. J Zoo Wildl Med 36: 635-641.

Johnson AK, Harms CA, Levine JF, Law JM. 2006. A quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay to measure TGF-beta mRNA and its correlation with hematologic, plasma chemistry and organo-somatic indices responses in triamcinolone-treated Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus. Dev Comp Imm 30: 473-484.

Maggi RG, Harms CA, Hohn AA, Pabst DA, McClellan WA, Walton WJ, Rotstein DS, Breitschwerdt EB. 2005. Detection of Bartonella henselae in harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) blood: the first evidence of Bartonella spp. infection in a non-terrestrial animal. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 1894-1898.

Govett PD, Harms CA, Johnson AJ, Latimer KS, Wellehan JFX, Fatzinger MH, Christian LS, Kelly TR, Lewart GA. 2005. Lymphoid follicular cloacal inflammation associated with a novel herpesvirus in juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). J Vet Diag Invest 17: 474-479.

Gore SR, Harms CA, Kukanich B, Forsythe J, Lewbart GA, Papich MG. 2005. Enrofloxacin pharmacokinetics in the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, after a single i.v. injection and bath administration. J Vet Pharmacol Therap 28: 433-439.

Harms CA, Lewbart GA, Swanson CR, Kishimori JM, Boylan SM. 2005. Behavioral and clinical pathology changes in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) subjected to anesthesia and surgery with and without intra-operative analgesics. Comp Med 55: 223-228.

Harms CA. 2005. Surgery in fish research: common procedures and postoperative care. Lab Anim 34:28-34.

Harms CA, Papich MG, Stamper MA, Ross PM, Rodriguez M, Hohn AA. 2004. Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) after a single intravenous and intramuscular injection. J Zoo Wildl Med 35: 477-488.

Cain DK, Harms CA, Segars A. 2004. Plasma biochemistry reference values of wild-caught southern stingrays (Dasyatis americana). J Zoo Wildl Med 35: 471-476.

Govett PD, Harms CA, Linder KE, Marsh JC, Wyneken J. 2004. Effect of four different suture materials on the surgical wound healing of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). J Herp Med Surg 35(4): 6-11.

Harms CA, Lo Picolo R, Rotstein DS, Hohn AA. 2004. Struvite penile urethrolithiasis in a pygmy sperm whale, (Kogia breviceps). J Wildl Dis 40: 588-593.

Keller JM, Kucklick JR, Stamper MA, Harms CA, McClellan-Green PD. 2004. Associations between organochlorine contaminant concentrations and clinical health parameters in loggerhead sea turtles from North Carolina, U.S.A. Environmental Health Perspectives 112: 1074-1079.

Keller JM, Kucklick JR, Harms CA, McClellan-Green P. 2004. Organochlorine contaminants in sea turtles: correlations between whole blood and fat. Envir Toxicol Chem 23: 726-738.

Harms CA, Howard KE, Wolf JC, Smith SA, Kennedy-Stoskopf S. 2003. Transforming growth factor-ß response to mycobacterial infection in striped bass Morone saxatilis and hybrid tilapia Oreochromis spp. Vet Imm Immunopath 95: 155-163.

Jaeger GH, Wosar MA, Harms CA, Lewbart GA. 2003. Supraplastron approach to the cranial coelomic cavity in a loggerhead turtle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 223: 353-355.

Harms CA. 2003. Fish. In: Fowler ME, Miller RE (eds). Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, pp. 2-20.

Degernes LA, Harms CA, Golet GH, Mulcahy DM. 2003. Anesthesia and liver biopsy techniques for pigeon guillemots suspected of exposure to crude oil in marine environments. J Av Med Surg 16: 291-299.

Harms CA, Mallo KM, Ross PM, Segars A. 2003. Venous blood gases and lactates of wild loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) following two capture techniques. J Wildl Dis 39: 366-374.

Presler BM, Goodman RA, Harms CA, Hawkins EC, Lewbart GA. 2003. Endoscopic evaluation of the esophagus and stomach in three loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) and a Malaysian giant turtle (Orlitia borneensis). J Zoo Wildl Med 34: 88-92.

Harms CA, Lewbart GA, Beasley J. 2002. Medical management of mixed nocardial and unidentified fungal osteomyelitis in a Kemp's ridley sea turtle, Lepidochelys kempii. J Herp Med Surg 12 (3): 21-26.

Harms C, Ross T, Segars A. 2002. Plasma biochemistry reference values of wild bonnethead sharks, Sphyrna tiburo. Vet Clin Path 31: 111-115.

Mallo K, Harms CA, Lewbart GA, Papich MG. 2002. Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) after single intravenous and subcutaneous injections, and multiple subcutaneous injections. J Zoo Wildl Med 33: 29-35.

Wolfe BA, Harms CA, Groves J, Loomis MR. 2001. Argulus sp. infestation of river frogs: treatment with lufenuron. Contemp Topics Lab Anim Med 40:35-36.

Harms CA, Wildgoose, WH. 2001. Surgery. In: Wildgoose WH (ed). BSAVA Manual of Ornamental Fish, 2nd ed. Goucester, UK: British Small Animal Veterinary Association. Pp. 259 - 266.

Chittick B, Harms C. 2001. Intraocular pressures of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in different body positions. Vet Rec 149: 587-589.

Sladky KK, Horne WA, Goodrowe KL, Stoskopf MK, Loomis MR, Harms CA. 2000. Evaluation of epidural morphine for post-surgical analgesia in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Contemp Topics Lab Anim Med 39 (6): 33-38.

Harms CA, Lewbart GA. 2000. Surgery in fish. Vet Clin N Am: Exot Anim Practice 3: 759-774.

Harms CA, Ottinger CA, Blazer VS, Densmore CL, Pieper LH, Kennedy-Stoskopf S. 2000. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for transforming growth factor-b applied to a field study of fish health in Chesapeake Bay tributaries. Environ Health Perspectives108: 447-452.

Harms CA, Ottinger CA, Kennedy-Stoskopf S. 2000. Correlation of transforming growth factor-b messenger RNA (TGF-b mRNA) expression with cellular immunoassays in triamcinolone-treated captive hybrid striped bass. J Aquatic Anim Health 12: 9-17.

Harms CA, Kennedy-Stoskopf S, Horne WA, Fuller FJ, Tompkins WAF. 2000. Cloning and sequencing hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x M. chrysops) transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b), and development of a reverse transcription quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (RT-qcPCR) assay to measure TGF-b mRNA of teleost fish. Fish Shellfish Imm 10: 61-85.

Harms CA, Keller JM, Kennedy-Stoskopf S. 2000. Use of a two-step Percoll® gradient for separation of loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Wildl Dis 36: 535-540.

Bakal RS, Harms CA, Khoo LH, Stoskopf MK. 1999. Sinus venosus catheterization for repeated vascular access in the hybrid striped bass. J Aquat Anim Health 11: 187-191.

Harms CA. 1999. Anesthesia in fish. In: Fowler ME, Miller RE (eds). Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, pp. 158-163.

Harms CA, Fleming WJ, Stoskopf MK. 1997. A technique for dorsal subcutaneous implantation of heart rate biotelemetry transmitters in black ducks: application to an aircraft noise response study. Condor 99: 231-237.

Harms CA, Bakal RS, Khoo LH, Spaulding KA, Lewbart GA. 1995. Microsurgical excision of an abdominal mass in a gourami (Colisa labiosa). J Am Vet Med Assoc
207: 1215-1217.

Harms CA, Hoskinson JJ, Bruyette DS, Carpenter JW, Galland J, Veatch JK, Wilson SC, Baier JG. 1994. Hypothyroidism in psittacine birds: Development of an experimental model in the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus). Am J Vet Res 55: 399-404.

Harms CA, Andrews GA. 1993. Megaesophagus in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Lab Anim Sci 43: 506-508.

Aronson RB, Harms CA. 1985. Ophiuroids in a Bahamian saltwater lake: the ecology of a Paleozoic-like community. Ecology 66: 1472-1483.


Environmental Medicine Consortium

Center for Marine Sciences and Technology