Dr. James S. Guy
Professor, Poultry Health Management
Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Microbiologists
Diplomate, American College of Poultry Veterinarians
- PhD - University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1984
- DVM - University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1980
- MS - University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1978
- BS - University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1972
Areas of Research/Study
- Proventriculitis in broiler chickens
- Coronavirus and astrovirus infections of turkeys
- Infectious laryngotracheitis
- Enteric diseases of turkeys
Infectious proventriculitis is a transmissible disease of chickens of unknown etiology. The disease occurs commonly in broiler chickens and is associated with proventricular fragility, impaired growth ("runting"), poor feed conversion, and impaired feed digestion. Additionally, the disease is responsible for increased processing costs due to greater numbers of reprocessed carcasses, downgrades and condemnations.
Recent studies in our laboratory have identified an adenovirus-like virus (AdLV), designated R11/3, as a likely cause of this disease, and we have successfully propagated the virus in embryonated chicken eggs. In inoculated embryos, AdLV (R11/3) is detectable in proventricular tissues, and produces necrosis and inflammatory lesions consistent with the naturally occurring disease. The principal aim of current studies is to 1) determine antigenic relationships between AdLV (R11/3) and other known avian adenoviruses (groups I, II, III), 2) determine genomic relationships using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures, 3) clone and sequence AdLV (R11/3) DNA and compare sequences with known avian and mammalian virus sequences, 4) evaluate the ability of AdLV (R11/3) to experimentally reproduce proventriculitis in SPF chickens, 5) evaluate the feasibility of AdLV (R11/3) immunization for preventing proventriculitis in chickens. Enteric diseases of young turkeys also are a focus of our research efforts. These diseases are the most significant cause of lost economic potential in the turkey industry and likely are responsible for lost income of well over $300 million dollars annually in the US. Turkey coronavirus (TCV) and turkey astrovirus (TastV) are currently under study in the laboratory. Studies in progress are aimed at 1) determining antigenic and genomic relationships between TCV and other avian and mammalian coronaviruses, 2) developing improved diagnostic procedures for TCV and TAstV, 3) determining methods of TCV and TastV transmission, and 4) determining the mechanisms of TCV and TastV pathogenesis. Improved diagnostic procedures for TCV are being developed utilizing results of gene sequencing studies. These diagnostic procedures include reverse transcriptase-PCR procedures for rapid detection of the virus in infected turkeys, and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological detection. The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is based on antigen derived by expression of TCV nucleocapsid protein by a recombinant baculovirus previously produced in the laboratory. Immunohistochemical procedures for TCV and TastV based on monoclonal antibodies also are being developed.
TCV has been associated as a cause of high mortality in young turkeys; however under laboratory conditions the virus causes diarrhea and growth depression without significant mortality. High mortality in young turkeys has been experimentally reproduced by dual infection with TCV and enteropathogenic strains of E. coli (EPEC). Turkeys inoculated with only EPEC do not show clinical signs of disease. The method(s) by which TCV potentiates EPEC infection resulting in severe disease is the focus of studies in the laboratory. In additon, the prevalence of TCV, TAstV and EPEC in field cases of enteric disease in turkeys is being investigated. Therapeutic amelioration of severe enteric disease in young turkeys is being studied using TCV and EPEC as an experimental model.
Appointments and Honors
- July 2002 to present. Professor. Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University.
- January 2004 to present. Visiting Professor. Department of Paraclinical Studies. School of Veterinary Medicine. St. George's University, Grenada, West Indies.
- July 1996 to June 2002. Professor. Department of Microbiology, Pathology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University.
- July 1989 to June 1996. Associate Professor. Department of Microbiology, Pathology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University.
- January 1984 to June 1989. Assistant Professor. Department of Microbiology Pathology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University.
- Guy, J. S., H. J. Barnes, L. G. Smith, R. Owen, and F. J. Fuller. 2005. Propagation and partial characterization of an adenovirus-like virus isolated from broiler chickens with transmissible viral proventriculitis. Avian Diseases. In Press.
- Sellers, H. S., M. García, J. R. Glisson, T. P. Brown, J. S. Sander, and J. S. Guy. 2004. Mild Infectious Laryngotracheitis in Broiler Chickens in the Southeast. Avian Dis. 48:430-436.
- DeVoe, R., K. Geissler, D. Rotstein, G. Lewbart, and J. S. Guy. 2004. Ranavirus infection associated with morbidity and mortality in a group of captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). J. Zoo and Wildlife Med. 35:534-543.
- Guy, J. S., A. M. Miles, L. G. Smith, S. Schultz-Cherry, and F. J. Fuller. 2004. Antigenic and genomic characterization of turkey enterovirus-like virus (North Carolina, 1988 isolate): identification of the virus as turkey astrovirus 2. Avian Dis. 48:206-211.
- Wu, H. Y., J. S. Guy, D. Yooc, R. Vlasakd, E. Urbach, and D. A. Brian. 2003. Common RNA replication signals exist among group 2 coronaviruses despite a two cluster pattern of 5' and 3' UTR sequences. Virology 315:174-183.
- Guy, J. S., A. M. Miles, L. G. Smith, S. Schultz-Cherry, and F. J. Fuller. 2004. Antigenic and genomic characterization of turkey enterovirus-like virus (North Carolina, 1988 isolate): identification of the virus as turkey astrovirus 2. Avian Diseases. In Press.
- Pakpinyo, S., D. H. Ley, H. J. Barnes, J. P. Vaillancourt, and J. S. Guy. 2003. Enhancement of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli pathogenicity in young turkeys by concurrent turkey coronavirus infection. Avian Dis. 47:396-405.
- Pakpinyo, S., D. H. Ley, H. J. Barnes, J. P. Vaillancourt, and J. S. Guy. 2002. Prevalence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in naturally-occurring cases of poult enteritis-mortality syndrome. Avian Dis. 46:360-369.
- Guy, J. S., J. J. Breslin, L. G. Smith, and S. Pakpinyo. 2002. Development of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of turkey coronavirus antibodies. Avian Dis. 46: 334-341.
- Guy, J. S., J. J. Breslin, B. Breuheus, S. Vivrette, and L. G. Smith. (2000) Characterization of a coronavirus isolated from a diarrheic foal. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:4523-4526.
- Breslin, J. J., L. G. Smith, H. J. Barnes, and J. S. Guy. (2000) Comparison of virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction procedures for detection of turkey coronavirus. Avian Dis. 44:624-631.
- Guy, J. S. (2000) Turkey Coronavirus is more closely related to avian infectious bronchitis virus than to mammalian coronaviruses: a review. Avian Path. 29:207-212.
- Guy, J. S., L. G. Smith, J. J. Breslin, J. P. Vaillancourt and H. J. Barnes. (2000) High mortality and growth depression experimentally produced in young chickens by dual infection with enteropathogenic Esherichia coli and turkey coronavirus. Avian Dis. 44:105-113.
- Breslin, J. J., L. G. Smith, F. G. Fuller, and J. S. Guy. (1999) Sequence analysis of the turkey coronavirus nucleocapsid gene and 3' untranslated region identifies the virus as a close relative of infectious bronchitis virus. Virus Research 65:187-198.
- Guy, J. S. 2006. Virus-induced gastrointestinal diseases of chickens and turkeys. In: Avian Gut Function, Health and Disease, Proc 28th World Poultry Science Symposium. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom. In Press.
- Jackwood, M. W. and J. S. Guy. Turkey coronavirus. In: Isolation and Identification of Avian Pathogens, 5th ed., Am Assoc Avian Pathol, Athens, GA. In Press.
- Guy, J. S. 2005. Viral encephalitides in poultry. In: The Merck Veterinary Manual, 9th ed. Merck and Company, Inc. Pp. 2287-2289.
- Guy, J. S. 2003. Turkey viral hepatitis. In: Animal Health and Production Compendium. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom. Pp. 313-314.
- Guy, J. S., and T. J. Bagust. 2003. Laryngotracheitis. In: Diseases of Poultry, 11th ed., Y. M. Saif, H. J. Barnes, A. Fadly, J. R. Glisson, L. R. McDougald, and D. E. Swayne. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. Pp. 121-134.
- Guy, J. S. 2003. Turkey coronavirus enteritis. In: Diseases of Poultry, 11th ed., Y. M. Saif, H. J. Barnes, A. Fadly, J. R. Glisson, L. R. McDougald, and D. E. Swayne. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. Pp. 300-308.