Content

Biosecurity for International Travelers

Original document date: February 2012.  Current revision date: August 2014
BD Slenning (Dir., Agrosecurity & Biopreparedness),  JF Levine (Infectious Disease Control Committee
(Supersedes “APPENDIX VIII - Biosecurity For Prevention Of Foreign Animal Diseases” of May 4, 2005)

College of Veterinary Medicine Policy

1. Justification

To avoid introductionsof foreign animal or zoonotic diseases to the facilities, animals, and people at the NCSU College of VeterinaryMedicine (CVM), individuals who have recentlytraveled internationally must take extra precautions when visiting ourfacilities, whether that be the Veterinary Hospital, Teaching Animal Unit, orother areas where we have susceptible populations.
This documentidentifies information sources, general policy requirements, and decision-makingindividuals, to minimize risks posed by international travelers.

2. Covered Foreign Travel

Risks from foreign travel will vary overtime, and cannot be codified in this document. Current information on travel health risks, by country and/or bydisease, can be found at these sites:
ForeignAnimal Diseases OIE/WOAH

Zoonotic Diseases USCDC
Theseinformation sites will be the official sources for determining case-by-case potentialrisks to the College of Veterinary Medicine, its facilities, and its animals. Based on these identified risks, mitigationrequirements will be determined by the responsible individuals listed insection 4., below.

3. Summary Process Flow Chart

Read this entire document forexplanations, examples, and details.
A. Beforetraveling, evaluate the listed OIE and CDC websites for yourdestination.
A1. Ifthere are no warnings, there is no further action required, until the time ofheading home (see workflow item B. below).
A2. Ifthere are warnings on either/both sites, contact CVM officials in section 4 fordetermining best plan.
A3. If you have any doubts/questions, contact theCVM officials in section 4.

B. Before returning home, evaluate the listed OIE andCDC websites for your destination.
B1. If there are no warnings, there is no furtheraction required.
B2. If there are warnings on either/both sites,contact CVM officials in section 4. for determining best plan for returninghome.
B3. If you have any doubts/questions, contactthe CVM officials in section 4.

4. Personnel Responsible for Determiningrisk Mitigation Requirements

If thereare any questions or indications of potential risks in international travel, a case-by-casedetermination of the appropriate risk mitigation requirements will need to bemade. In such situations, the GeneralCVM individuals (below) will be consulted, and they will determine ifindividuals from the Veterinary Hospital and/or Teaching Animal Unit need bebrought in:

A.General CVM
A1. CVM Dir.,Agrosecurity & Biopreparedness
Barrett Slenning barrett_slenning@ncsu.edu

B. VeterinaryHospital
A2. Chair,CVM Infectious Disease Committee

C.Teaching Animal Unit
C1. Educational Coord., Teaching Animal Unit
919.513.6241

5. General Policy for Faculty, Staff, and Students

Responsibilities. All CVM personnel (faculty, staff, students) are responsible for informing the appropriate CVM leadership (see section 4., above) of international travel that may pose zoonotic or foreign animal disease risks.

Five Day Restriction/Quarantine period. In general, for individuals potentially exposed to a zoonotic or foreign animal disease, a five (5) day personal quarantine/restriction from susceptible species will be required. This period starts at the time of the last plausible exposure to relevant infectious agents – whether that be direct exposure to potentially infected animals, or by handling potentially contaminated specimens, equipment, or clothing.

To calculate the appropriate dates for returning to the CVM and its susceptible species, take the date of the last plausible exposure, and add (5+1). The following illustrate this process:

Example 1. An individual visits an FMDV infected farm on 01 March. On 02 March the individual returns to a city hotel, launders all his/her clothes in hot water (hot wash cycle on washing machine), disposes of footwear used for the farm visit, and takes a hot shower/shampoo. The individual boards an aircraft on 03 March to return to the USA. The person’s first day back at the CVM is scheduled for 04 March.

In this case, the last plausible exposure was 02 March (laundry day), which would start the 5-day restriction clock. The first day, then, the person could contact susceptible species would be 08 March, not the planned 04 March date.

Example 2. An individual performs his/her last experiment in a BSL3 laboratory with highly pathogenic avian influenza on 10 June. The laboratory requires him/her to fully shower and change clothes upon leaving the biocontainment area. He/She attends a meeting in another facility on 11-13 June. The flight home occurs on 14-15 June. The person’s expected first day back at the CVM is to be 16 June.

For this scenario, the last plausible date of exposure was on 10 June. The person’s first day he/she would be off restriction from susceptible species contact would be 16 June, which coincides with his/her first day back at the CVM.

General precautions. Ideally, equipment used, and clothes and shoes worn, while in potentially contaminated areas should not be brought back into the U.S. Keeping potentially contaminated clothing and equipment out of the country is the most effective mitigation tool. Alternatively, all clothes worn while in potentially contaminated areas should be washed in HOT water (using the hottest cycle on a washing machine) for as long a period as the washer cycle will allow. Use commercial detergent at its highest level recommendation. The addition of disinfectants (see next) to the soak/rinse cycle is strongly advised.

General disinfectants. Skin, surfaces, clothing, and equipment must be clean before being disinfected.

Current literature supports the use of 1:10 Clorox®, Lysol® Antibacterial Spray, Regular Lysol® Disinfectant, Mr. Clean®, or 70% ethanol for good-excellent bacterial disinfectionRutala, 2000.

Additionally, current literature also supports the use of Lysol® Disinfectant, 1:25 Clorox®, as being effective against virusesRutala, 2000; Dellanno, 2009. Furthermore, most influenza viruses are sensitive to standard home disinfectants.

Lastly, Foot and Mouth Disease virus is also sensitive to acidic solutions, so soaking clothing or equipment in grocery-store concentrations of vinegar will kill FMDV within minutes.

A general guide to assessing the value of different disinfectants for varying situations and disease agents is included at the end of this document Dvorak, 2005. Note that some of these disinfectants can damage or discolor clothing or surfaces.

Exceptions to the policy. Exceptions may be made to this policy when the CVM personnel can provide assurance that he/she has not visited any areas of a country or region in which plausible contact could be made. For example, it is acceptable to visit hotels, conferences, airports, or urban areas of a foreign country if there is reasonable assurance that such a visit would not expose the person to a potential foreign animal or zoonotic disease.

Exceptions will be allowed only upon agreement of the two individuals under “A. General CVM” in Section 4., above.

6. General Policy for Visitors and Clients

Tours. Tours of the CVM, (for example school tours, visiting groups, etc.) must register with the CVM Student Services office. The office of Student Services is located in Room A-242 of the CVM main building or may be contacted at phone number 919-513-6205.

The Student Services office will be educated on the College’s Policy on Biosecurity for International Travelers so that they can appropriately inform tour groups.

Other Visitors. Other visitors (visiting faculty, guests) will discuss any foreign travel in the immediate 5 days with their host. The host will be responsible for assuring policy adherence.

Hospital Clients. Clients bringing an animal to the CVM for clinical service will be informed of the CVM Policy on Biosecurity for International Travelers upon first contact, when deemed necessary by Hospital Board. Hospital Board will also determine the implementation of signs posted near public entrances, informational literature, and personal interviews when necessary; should the client bypass the appointment scheduling process. Hospital client service representatives and clinical supervisors will be aware of and will enforce this policy.

Determining Restriction Time. In general, no individuals who traveled to potentially infected areas, as determined in section 2., above, will be allowed to tour the CVM facilities until after five (5) days have elapsed since the last plausible exposure. Additionally, such an individual’s susceptible animal will not be allowed access to clinical services.

To calculate the appropriate restriction timeline dates, take the last plausible exposure date, and add (5+1). The following illustrate this process:

Example 1. An individual visits an FMDV infected farm on 01 March. On 02 March the individual returns to a city hotel, launders all his/her clothes in hot water (hot wash cycle on washing machine), disposes of footwear used for the farm visit, and takes a hot shower/shampoo. The individual boards an aircraft on 03 March to return to the USA. The person’s first day back at the CVM is scheduled for 04 March.

In this case, the last plausible exposure was 02 March (laundry day), which would start the 5-day restriction clock. The first day, then, the person could contact susceptible species would be 08 March, not the planned 04 March date.

Example 2. An individual performs his/her last experiment in a BSL3 laboratory with highly pathogenic avian influenza on 10 June. The laboratory requires him/her to fully shower and change clothes upon leaving the biocontainment area. He/She attends a meeting in another facility on 11-13 June. The flight home occurs on 14-15 June. The person’s expected first day back at the CVM is to be 16 June.

For this scenario, the last plausible date of exposure was on 10 June. The person’s first day he/she would be off restriction from susceptible species contact would be 16 June, which coincides with his/her first day back at the CVM.

General precautions. Ideally, equipment used, and clothes and shoes worn, while in potentially contaminated areas should not be brought back into the U.S. Keeping potentially contaminated clothing and equipment out of the country is the most effective mitigation tool.

Alternatively, all clothes worn while in potentially contaminated areas should be washed in HOT water (using the hottest cycle on a washing machine) for as long a period as the washer cycle will allow. Use commercial detergent at its highest recommended level. The addition of disinfectants (see next) to the soak/rinse cycle is strongly advised.

General disinfectants. Skin, surfaces, clothing, and equipment must be clean before being disinfected.

Current literature supports the use of 1:10 Clorox®, Lysol® Antibacterial Spray, Regular Lysol® Disinfectant, Mr. Clean®, or 70% ethanol for good-excellent bacterial disinfectionRutala, 2000.

Additionally, current literature also supports the use of Lysol® Disinfectant, 1:25 Clorox®, as being effective against virusesRutala, 2000; Dellanno, 2009. Furthermore, most influenza viruses are sensitive to standard home disinfectants.

Lastly, Foot and Mouth Disease virus is also sensitive to acidic solutions, so soaking clothing or equipment in grocery-store concentrations of vinegar will kill FMDV within minutes.

A general guide to assessing the value of different disinfectants for varying situations and disease agents is included at the end of this document Dvorak, 2005. Note that some of these disinfectants can damage or discolor clothing or surfaces.

Exceptions. Exceptions may be made to this policy when the CVM visitor or client can provide assurance that he/she has not visited any areas of a country or region in which plausible contact could be made. For example, it is acceptable to visit hotels, conferences, airports, or urban areas of a foreign country if there is reasonable assurance that such a visit would not expose the person to a potential foreign animal or zoonotic disease.

Exceptions will be allowed only upon agreement of the two individuals under “A. General CVM” in Section 4., above.

7. Informational Warning Postings

Signs about this policy will be placed near the public entrances to the CVM, including the Teaching Animal Unit, and any other site deemed appropriate by the individuals identified in Section 4., above.. Hospital Board will determine appropriate placement of signs for the Veterinary Health and Wellness Center, Equine and Farm Animal Veterinary Center, and Terry Center.

The signs will state the time period concerned at 1.5 times the typical restriction period, or eight (8) days, to allow CVM personnel to interview such individuals and thereby add in a safety factor. The signs will meet University and State requirements for size and readability. They will follow the below template for the policy and contact information:

BIOSECURE AREA

If you have traveled outside the USA within the past eight (8) days, you may inadvertently transmit disease to our animals, our hospital patients, or our personnel.

BEFORE ENTERING THE PROPERTY, PLEASE CONTACT

College Information Desk [919-513-6786] or College Administrative Offices [919-513-6211]
Thank you.

College of Veterinary Medicine

 

8. Updates and Revisions of This Policy

This policy will be reviewed and submitted for revision on at least a bi-annual basis, or as deemed necessary by the individuals listed in Section 4., above.

9. References

Dellanno C, Vega Q, Boesenberg D. The antiviral action of common household disinfectants and antiseptics against murine hepatitis virus, a potential surrogate for SARS coronavirus. Am J Infect Control. 2009 Oct;37(8):649-52. Epub 2009 Aug 18. PubMed PMID: 19692148.

Dvorak G. Disinfection 101. Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University. 2005.

Rutala WA, Barbee SL, Aguiar NC, Sobsey MD, Weber DJ. Antimicrobial activity of home disinfectants and natural products against potential human pathogens. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2000 Jan;21(1):33-8.

END of POLICY

BD Slenning, JF Levine. 4 March 2011, 12:45 PM
ForeignTravelBiosecurity_CVM.doc
Updated 17 Feb 2012 BDS; Updated 08 Aug 2014 BDS; Updated 31Aug 2014 BDS (on suggestions by K Anderson and M Jacob)

 

Following are Links to Appendix on Disinfectant Spectrum and Characteristics