Content

Foals

Foal ICU

  • A foal that is less than 2 weeks of age and presents with / exhibits no signs of an infectious disease that can be transmitted to another patient or person.
  • Setup and management
    • Stall will be identified as “Foal ICU”
    • Boots, gloves, and gowns are required PPE
    • These patients are not on Restriction so the PPE can be reused.
    • Purpose of PPE is to protect the foal from inadvertent transmission of an infectious disease to the foal.

Foals less than 30 days of age

  • A foal that is less than 30 days of age and presents with / exhibits no signs of an infectious disease that can be transmitted to another patient or person.
  • Setup and management
    • Boots and gloves are required PPE
    • These patients are not on Restriction so the PPE can be reused.
    • Purpose of PPE is to protect the foal from inadvertent transmission of an infectious disease to the foal.

Diarrhea in Foals

  • A premature foal, or a neonatal foal with diarrhea (fluid feces) that shows signs of septicemia and is not ambulant will be admitted to the foal ICU. Both the foal and its dam will be handled as restricted patients. Fecal samples will be submitted for Salmonella culture from the foal and the dam
  • A neonatal foal already in the ICU that develops diarrhea and is showing signs of sepsis shall be restricted along with its dam. Fecal samples will be submitted for Salmonella culture from the foal and the dam
  • A neonatal foal admitted with diarrhea that is bright, alert, and responsive and shows no systemic signs of septicemia shall be placed in a stall with its dam on restriction (C aisle, north). A fecal sample shall be submitted to virology for rotavirus determination. The mare and foal will remain in restriction for the duration of hospitalization.
  • If the two stalls in the foal ICU are occupied, then the next foal admitted with diarrhea and systemic signs of septicemia will be placed in isolation irrespective of whether it is ambulant.
  • A foal of 7 days of age or older with watery fluid diarrhea and no systemic signs of inflammation shall be placed in restriction (C aisle, north). A fecal sample will be submitted for rotavirus determination. Restriction will be removed if there is no evidence of rotavirus.
  • A foal of 7 days of age or older with watery fluid diarrhea and signs of systemic inflammation shall be placed in isolation with its dam on admission.
  • A foal voiding hemorrhagic diarrhea, with or without systemic signs, that is ambulatory shall be admitted directly to isolation with its dam. A neonatal foal with hemorrhagic diarrhea that is non-ambulatory will be admitted to the foal ICU with its dam. Samples will be taken for Salmonella culture and Clostridium perfringens / difficile culture or toxin determination.
  • An older foal admitted for a surgical procedure (or admitted with its dam that is the surgery case) that develops diarrhea without evidence of systemic signs shall be placed in restriction (the stall being occupied). A fecal sample will be submitted for rotavirus determination. If the foal becomes depressed, has a fever or develops neutropenia, the foal and its dam will be placed in isolation. A series of fecal samples will be taken for Salmonella culture from the foal and the dam
  • Equine medicine service clinicians will be responsible for all cases in the isolation stalls.
  • Direct admission or transfer of a neonatal or young foal with diarrhea to isolation poses logistical problems. Intensive care management poses a safety risk to hospital personnel and the foal.