skip to main content, skip to Quick links, or skip to Search

Oncology

Contact Information

Phone:
919.513.6690 Oncology
919.513.6272 Bone Marrow Transplant
Fax:  919.513.6669
Email:
vhconcology@ncsu.edu
vhcbonemarrow@ncsu.edu
Hours: Monday-Friday, 8AM-5PM
Regular appointments: 
9:30AM-1:00PM
Drop-offs:     7:30AM-8:30AM
Discharges:   4PM-6PM

The Oncology service is a referral-only service. Once the primary veterinarian calls and sets up the referral, the owner may call and arrange an appointment. If the patient has been seen by our service recently, owners may call Oncology directly to set up an appointment.

General Information

The Terry Center

red Cross Cadeceus

Emergency Service

Main Number: 919.513.6500
Small Animal Emergency: 919.513.6911
Large Animal Emergency: 919.513.6630
Hours:
Monday-Thursday 5PM-8AM
Friday 5PM-Monday 8AM

Open 24 hours on legal holidays.
No appointment needed.

Oncology

Lymphoma in Cats

What is Lymphoma?

Lymphoma is a systemic disease that has the potential to affect any organ. In cats, high-grade lymphoblastic lymphoma is most often categorized according to the site(s) affected. The most common form is multicentric lymphoma, in which the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes may be involved as well as other sites within the abdominal cavity. Other forms include: gastric, intestinal, renal, thymic (mediastinal), and spinal lymphoma.

Diagnostic Testing

Diagnostic tests are recommended to determine which sites in the body are involved. These tests include:

lymphoma cat lymphoma cat

Treatment

While surgery may be indicated for some patients (e.g. those with a discrete intestinal mass), because it is a systemic disease, systemic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for lymphoma. One potential exception to this rule occurs with nasal lymphoma, where disease often remains confined to the nose and radiation therapy is the treatment of choice.

Our most effective chemotherapy treatment protocol consists of six different chemotherapy drugs (L-asparaginase, vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, prednisone, methotrexate). Each of these is an effective drug for treating lymphoma. By using the drugs in combination, we achieve better tumor control, less drug resistance, and longer remissions. Chemotherapy drugs work by targeting fast-growing cells; cancer cells divide faster than normal cells. Because of this, chemotherapy preferentially destroys cancer and spares normal tissues. There is the potential for some normal tissues with rapid growth rates (intestinal lining, bone marrow) to be transiently damaged by chemotherapy. However, our goal in treating cancer in animals in quality of life, so the dosages are lower than used in people. We do not normally see significant toxicity with chemotherapy. There is always some risk when a drug is given for the first time, and the oncologist will discuss what types of side effects may develop and what to watch for. If the pet has no problems the first time they receive a drug, they should have no problems with subsequent treatments of that drug. If the pet experiences any side effects, we address them as needed and lower the dosage of the causative drug for future treatment to prevent recurrent problems. In general, 50-75% of cats achieves complete remission with chemotherapy and enjoy a good quality of life for approximately 6-10 months (this varies somewhat according to the sites affected, with some cats surviving for years).

If/when the cancer relapses, "rescue" treatment can be considered. There are also several other alternative protocols that are less intensive, although somewhat less efficacious, and less costly. These protocol options include doxorubicin alone, COP, oral cyclophosphamide + prednisone, and prednisone alone.

Selected References

  1. Spodnick GJ, Berg J, Moore FM, et al. Spinal lymphoma in cats: 21 cases (1976-1989). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1992;200:373-376.
  2. Mooney SC , Hayes AA, MacEwen EG, et al. Treatment and prognostic factors in lymphoma in cats: 103 cases (1977-1981). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989;194:696-699.
  3. Ogilvie GK, Moore AS , Obradovich JE, et al. Toxicoses and efficacy associated with administration of mitoxantrone to cats with malignant tumors. J Am Vet Med Assoc 199;202:1839-1844.
  4. Kristal O, Lana SE, Ogilvie GK, et al. Single-agent chemotherapy with doxorubicin for feline lymphoma: a retrospective study of 19 cases 91994-1997). J Vet Intern Med 2001;15:125-130.
  5. Cotter SM. Treatment of lymphoma and leukemia with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone. II. Treatment of cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1983;19:166-172.
  6. Fondacaro JV, Richter KP, Carpenter JL, et al. Feline gastrointestinal lymphoma: 67 cases (1988-1996). Eur J Comp Gastroenterol 1999;4:5-11.
  7. Elmslie RE, Ogilvie GK, Gillette EL, et al. Radiotherapy with and without chemotherapy for localized lymphoma in 10 cats. Vet Radiol 1991;32:277-280.